SYNAGOGUES

Interior view: Holy of the El Ghriba synagogue, Djerba, Tunisia, 1981. Photo: Jan Parik. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv. Interior view: "Holy" of the El Ghriba synagogue, Djerba, Tunisia, 1981. Photo: Jan Parik. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv.   THE SYNAGOGUE, A GATHERING PLACE FOR THE JEWS, BECAME A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM AFTER ITS DESTRUCTION (70 C.E.), AND THE IDEA OF HOLINESS EXTENDED TO SYNAGOGUES OUTSIDE ISRAEL AS WELL. THE INSTITUTION OF THE SYNAGOGUE PLAYED A CENTRAL ROLE IN PRESERVING THE COMMUNITY AND PERPETUATING THE JEWISH FAITH. OVER THE GENERATIONS,EXTERIOR SYNAGOGUE DESIGN VARIED DEPENDING ON THE LOCATION OF THE DIASPORA, WITH THE INTERIOR DESIGN FALLING INTO BROAD EASTERN AND WESTERN STYLES. THE INTERNAL APPURTENANCES AND DECORATIONS BECAME A VENUE FOR JEWISH ARTISTIC EXPRESSION.   Interior of synagogue in Veroia (Veria), Greece. Built originally in the 18th century, the synagogue underwent expansions and alterations as the community grew and dwindled., Greece. Built originally in the 18th century, the synagogue underwent expansions and alterations as the community grew and dwindled.") Interior of synagogue in Veroia (Veria), Greece.Built originally in the 18th century, the synagogue underwent expansions and alterations as the community grew and dwindled. In this interior view to the northeast we see the Ark under a carved wooden canopy and along the north wall, three plastered rectangles that replaced the grills of the former mehiza, or women's gallery. Photo: Rivka and Ben-Zion Dorfman, Synagogue Art Research, Jerusalem.   Third-century synagogue excavated at Capernaum. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. Third-century synagogue excavated at Capernaum. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     The ruins of the synagogue in Ostin, Italy. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. The ruins of the synagogue in Ostin, Italy. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     The Magen Aboth synagogue, built in 1910, Alibag, India. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth, Photo Archive, Tel Aviv. Courtesy of Dorothy Field, Canada. The Magen Aboth synagogue, built in 1910, Alibag, India. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth, Photo Archive, Tel Aviv. Courtesy of Dorothy Field, Canada.     Synagogue (now an art gallery) in Trencin, Slovakia. This imposing edifice was completed in 1913 to replace a 125-year-old building and to serve the needs of some 1,500 Jews, about 16 percent of the towns population. in Trencin, Slovakia. This imposing edifice was completed in 1913 to replace a 125-year-old building and to serve the needs of some 1,500 Jews, about 16 percent of the towns population.") Synagogue (now an art gallery) in Trencin, Slovakia. This imposing edifice was completed in 1913 to replace a 125-year-old building and to serve the needs of some 1,500 Jews, about 16 percent of the town's population. With lavish dome and Oriental decorative motifs, the synagogue contains a spacious winter prayer-room on the southern side, shown here, where a small kehillah of fewer than two dozen members met weekly for Shabbat prayers in the 1990s. Photo: Rivka and Ben-Zion Dorfman, Synagogue Art Research, Jerusalem.   Beth Sholom, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, United States, synagogue designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, 1954. Photo: Jeffrey Howe, Fine Arts Department, Boston College, USA. Beth Sholom, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, United States, synagogue designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, 1954. Photo: Jeffrey Howe, Fine Arts Department, Boston College, USA.     Part of the painted ceiling of the synagogue in Chodorow, near Lvov, Poland (now Ukraine). The paintings were by Israel Ben Mordechai Lisnicki of Jaryczow in 1714. The synagogue was destroyed during the Holocaust. Reconstruction in Beth Hatefut. The paintings were by Israel Ben Mordechai Lisnicki of Jaryczow in 1714. The synagogue was destroyed during the Holocaust. Reconstruction in Beth Hatefut") Part of the painted ceiling of the synagogue in Chodorow, near Lvov, Poland (now Ukraine). The paintings were by Israel Ben Mordechai Lisnicki of Jaryczow in 1714. The synagogue was destroyed during the Holocaust. Reconstruction in Beth Hatefutsoth. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv, Permanent Exhibition.   The 14th-century Ark of the Law in the Altneushul in Prague. The synagogue is one of the oldest in Europe, dating at least to the 12th century. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. The 14th-century Ark of the Law in the Altneushul in Prague. The synagogue is one of the oldest in Europe, dating at least to the 12th century. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Johanan ben Zakkai synagogue, built in the early 17th century by descendants of Jews expelled from Spain, Old City, Jerusalem. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. Johanan ben Zakkai synagogue, built in the early 17th century by descendants of Jews expelled from Spain, Old City, Jerusalem. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   Torah scroll niches in a faience-tiled wall from a synagogue in Isfahan, Iran, c. 1550. Photo: H. R. Lippmann, NY. The Jewish Museum, New York. Torah scroll niches in a faience-tiled wall from a synagogue in Isfahan, Iran, c. 1550. Photo: H. R. Lippmann, NY. The Jewish Museum, New York.     Interior and exterior views of the Zedek Veshalom Synagogue, founded in 1716, Paramaribu, Surinam. According to beliefs, the floor of sand inside this synagogue remains as such until the community goes back to Jerusalem. Photo: Interior and exterior views of the "Zedek Veshalom" Synagogue, founded in 1716, Paramaribu, Surinam. According to beliefs, the floor of sand inside this synagogue remains as such until the community goes back to Jerusalem. Photo: Micha Bar-Am. By courtesy of Mordechai Arbell.   synagogues A model of the synagogue of Kai-Feng, China. The synagogue was first constructed in 1163 and rebuilt in 1653. In the 18th century, after the community had disintegrated through assimilation, the synagogue fell into decay. A model of the synagogue of Kai-Feng, China. The synagogue was first constructed in 1163 and rebuilt in 1653. In the 18th century, after the community had disintegrated through assimilation, the synagogue fell into decay. By courtesy of Beth Hatefutsoth Photo Archive, Tel Aviv. Permanent Exhibition.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 20 TO–WEI FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems – without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this product, submit your request via Web at http://www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Department <address> Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning 27500 Drake Road Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 </address> Permissions Hotline: (+1) 248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253 ext. 8006 Fax: (+1) 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058 Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgments constitute an extension of the copyright notice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. — 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries TO–WEI 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 757 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 758 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 764 • Transliteration Rules 777 Glossary 780 TOAFF TOAFF, Italian family of rabbis. ALFREDO SABATO TOAFF (1880–1963) was born in Leghorn and studied under R. Elijah benamozegh at the Leghorn Rabbinical College, where he was made professor, and in 1923 succeeded Samuel colombo as chief rabbi of Leghorn. A member of the Italian Rabbinical Council for many years (from 1931), he was several times its president. He headed the Leghorn Rabbinical College and was head of the collegio Rabbinico Italiano in Rome from its reopening in 1955 until his death, which occurred in his native city. He was the author of many works on, and translations into Italian of, biblical and post-biblical Hebrew literature, as well as of writings on the history and traditions of the Leghorn Jewish community (such as Cenni storici sulla Comunità Ebraica e sulla Singagoga di Livorno, 1955). Many of his writings show the influence of E. Benamozegh, whose Scritti Scelti (1955) he edited. A bibliography of the writings of Alfredo Toaff appears in: E. Toaff (ed.), Annuario di Studi Ebraici (1965), 215–6. His son, ELIO TOAFF (1915–), was born in Leghorn and was the last rabbi ordained by its Rabbinical College, before its closure by the Fascist regime (reopened 1955). He was rabbi of Ancona (1941–46) and of Venice (1946–51) and was called to Rome to succeed David prato as chief rabbi of that community in 1951. A member of the Italian Rabbinical Council and head of the Collegio Rabbinico Italiano from 1963, he edited the Annuario di Studi Ebraici at the college. Elio was a member of the executive of the Conference of European Rabbis. On April 13, 1986, he welcomed Pope John Paul II on the first visit ever by a pope to a synagogue. He wrote articles and translated studies on Jewish, biblical, and historical topics from Hebrew into Italian. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Israel, corriere israelitico, 49 (1963), nos. 7–13; Ha-Tikwà, Organo della Federazione giovanile ebraica d'Italia, 11 (1963), no. 9. (Sergio DellaPergola)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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